Comsol Coil

Let's start with a simple example of a conductive wire that is bent into a loop and connected to a constant voltage source, a battery (shown below). Application ID: 59301. 3D Magnetic Fields section of the AC/DC module is considered for geometry (Figure 1). If all of the coils are driven with the same current of 10 A, we can plot the z-component of the magnetic flux density along the centerline, as shown in the image below. I have done the geometry of the screen and tried to draw a ring shaped coil, but I cannot manage to set the current through the coil. The best 3 similar sites: zimmer. A Helmholtz coil is a parallel pair of identical circular coils spaced one radius apart and wound so that the current flows through both coils in the same direction. COMSOL webinar - modeling coils and electric devices - Duration: 27:19. Geometry: The model geometry consists of a cylinder and a sphere. ESSENTIALS OF POSTPROCESSING AND VISUALIZATION IN COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 2 the current flows through both coils in the same direction. Get an introduction to modeling electromagnetic coils using COMSOL Multiphysics ® and the add-on AC/DC Module. The COMSOL Conference 2020 North America will be held online this year! The annual conference moved to an online format in order to better accommodate the uncertainty in travel and in-person meetings. × Warning Your internet explorer is in compatibility mode and may not be displaying the website correctly. The previous work of the authors indicated that the fluid-solid coupling effect of the magneto-rheological fluid and the brake disc is a necessary focus during. The combination of COMSOL. It includes 1. Experiences from modeling very thin structures in COMSOL Multiphysics Bergen COMSOL User Group Workshop April 10th 2013. At the heart of a FOG is a sensing Coil consists of several hundred meters of optical fiber, wound in one of several special patterns designed to improve gyroscopic performance. For me to fully recreate my own model would have been difficult, but the model already created in the model library helped to simulate my portion of our project. HELMHOLTZ COIL Simulation of a parallel pair of identical circular. A coil is modeled in the ANSYS MAXWELL and simulated coil is produced to compare the all. 36kA/m that corresponds to your estimate, COMSOL is normally not calculating wrong (at least not my 4. Firstly, like all air core coils, it is free from 'iron losses' and the non-linearity mentioned above. Induction Heating in Design. The channel - which can be completely underwater, in air, or include an air-water interface - is based on a full-wave analysis based on Maxwell’s equations using the finite-difference time-domain method. Design for the Present and Future with the RF Module Products, components, and devices can always be improved. Coil (Probe) Design. Jan Kocbach. I have endothermic reaction inside the. Electromagnetics Modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics The AC/DC and RF Modules. \൜爀屲A lot can be considered and achieved before proceeding to the expensive stage of building prototypes or deploying. I specified a current excitation of 1[A]. com Presented at the COMSOL Conference 2009 Boston. Titled the AC/DC Module User’s Guide, it introduces you to the basic functionality in the module, reviews new features in the version 3. Dual Voice Coil (DVC) Wiring Tutorial With multi-driver sub systems, which often feature dual voice coils (DVC) on each driver, the level of wiring complexity can be enough to turn-off even the most adventurous of car audio do-it-yourselfers. Three finite element meshes were used in the study. COMSOL is a global provider of simulation software for product design and research to technical enterprises, research labs, and universities. • Three examples of using COMSOL in various phases of a product development • Design example • Validation of modeling tools • Diagnosis of a design flaw • Size the coil and other components to generate the alternating magnetic fields needed to produce the appropriate. density (B-field). 4 COMSOL Multiphysics ® version 5. The cylinder is given an outer layer, forming the coil domains. The sphere encapsulates the coil, and is given an outer layer to form the infinite element domains. Please try again later. To compute the velocity field in the model, I have coupled the two models using multiphysics option. 38,281 views. What i am looking for is a way to get the same magnetic field distribution regardless of the coil orientation. 01406m^2 for 38*260=9880A hence your 702. The objective of minimizing the total dissipated coil power is implemented. This material is accessed from the Comsol material database. We further want to constrain the fields at M number of points on the centerline to be above a value of B 0. Laccase immobilization and synthesis of the nanocomposites were carried out by two. A coil is modeled in the ANSYS MAXWELL and simulated coil is produced to compare the all. If you go to the Magnetic Fields interface's settings window and find that the equation form is set to "Stationary", switch it to "Study controlled" (the default). Comsol Coil Simulation. In session 4 of this continuing lecture series, we will work through the modeling steps and use of the COMSOL® software for modeling electromagnetic coils with the AC/DC Module. For me to fully recreate my own model would have been difficult, but the model already created in the model library helped to simulate my portion of our project. Application ID: 48041. The primary coil receives the AC electrical input signal. This lends it to processes where a high degree of cleanliness is paramount, such as in semiconductor manufacturing, for example. In the final part of a 5-part series on coil modeling, you will get a demonstration in the COMSOL Multiphysics ® software of different features in the Magnetic Fields interface, such as the Magnetic Shielding boundary condition, Ampère's Law feature, and. The cylinder is given an outer layer, forming the coil domains. representative, go to other COMSOL websites, request information and pricing, submit technical support queries, subscribe to the monthly eNews email newsletter, and much more. Geometry: The model geometry consists of a cylinder and a sphere. Cross-sectionschematicof(a)wirelesspower. You will learn how to introduce an array of turns to a coil and see how this affects the magnetic field of the electric circuit. Prathamesh has 4 jobs listed on their profile. Dielectric losses, coil form and conductor insulation 3. 2-D homogeneous model to estimate AC losses in coated conductor stacks and coils (shared by V. Such a hybrid coil made of BSCCO – 2212 (inner coil) and Nb-Ti (outer coil) was designed [3]. where P o is the initial total power dissipated in all coils and P_{coil}^k is the power dissipated in the k th coil. gif https://www. 132 2 nd International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology Development of an electrode/electrolyte interface model based on pseudo-distributed elements combining COMSOL, MATLAB and HSPICE Matteo Scaramuzza a,* , Alberto Ferrario b , Elisabetta Pasqualotto a , Alessandro De Toni a a. Mesh: The default physics-controlled mesh is used. The calculations which performed for three: 8, 16 and 32 toroidal coils, indicates that increasing the number of toroidal coils lead to. QuickField is very powerful tool for electromagnetic coil simulation. Combining this anisotropic effect with a temperature-dependent resistivity makes this a complex multiphysics problem. Michael Morken. When I compute the magnetic field around the coil, some line go trough the coil itself. Finally, experimental results are presented for a number of projectiles and the results are analyzed. Residual Stress; What is it; Unlike the applied stress, residual stress is induced during processing. The furnace had a complicated geometry for the coils and this is, perhaps, for the first time an exhaustive study which is being reported. How to Set Up and Run a Simulation with COMSOL Multiphysics. 00 ©2015 IEEE. 2 T when the running current is 60 kA. Electromagnetic coils simulations with QuickField. To compute the velocity field in the model, I have coupled the two models using multiphysics option. A copper coil carries hot water through a duct carrying cold air. With a view to determine magnetic field topology, a computational domain was created which is a model of a saddle-shaped coil. ELECTROMAGNETICS FLUID & HEAT Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow (˛ Days) 16-17 MARCH | Stockholm, Sweden Learn how to use COMSOL Multiphysics® to model fl uid fl ow and heat transfer applications. Masson Advanced Magnet Lab [email protected] Click on “COMSOL Access” present at the bottom of the page. Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is commonly used as a convenient method of determining the characteristic impedance of a transmission line or quantifiying reflections caused by discontinuities along or at the termination of a transmission line. 9) of our coil selection and pricing software is now available. The sphere encapsulates the coil, and is given an outer layer to form the infinite element domains. Dear colleagues, I need to modeling Ac coil to inducting a AC magnetic field for my project. number of windings in the coil, I is the current though the coils, Rc is the radius of the coil. where P o is the initial total power dissipated in all coils and P_{coil}^k is the power dissipated in the k th coil. Program highlights still include keynote talks, presentations, and panel discussions featuring speakers across all fields of engineering, apart from the traditional news announcements. 1 to utilize the latest technology in simulations today. A coil gun is an electromagnetic projectile launcher. Where: L is the inductance in Henries, V L is the voltage across the coil and di/dt is the rate of change of current in Amperes per second, A/s. Results show the uniform magnetic field between the coils with the primary component parallel to the axes of the two coils. We further want to constrain the fields at M number of points on the centerline to be above a value of B 0. Dear colleagues, I need to modeling Ac coil to inducting a AC magnetic field for my project. Christopher Crawford COMSOL Conference, Boston 2011-10-14 Presented at the 2011 COMSOL Conference. This depends on the design of the probe. The update includes enhanced features to aid customers selecting replacement HVAC coils. Application ID: 16991. Titled the AC/DC Module User's Guide, it introduces you to the basic functionality in the module, reviews new features in the version 3. 01406m^2 for 38*260=9880A hence your 702. The cylinder is given an outer layer, forming the coil domains. A homogeneous magnetic field can be found through quadrature excitation, in combination with the appropriate number of lumped elements. The simulation technique is described. Linear DC Motors, Voice Coil Motors (VCM) or Voice Coil Actuators (VCA) are the simplest type of electric motors. The user can simulate a design, test for the capacitance and observe the effects on capacitance by changing parameters such as dielectric permittivity of materials. Ole Wolff have been using COMSOL since 2016 and are now using it to simulate both mechanical, electrical and acoustical parameters of loudspeakers and enclosures. View Prathamesh Bilgunde, PhD'S profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. The latest release (Release 7. Besides creating magnetic fields, Helmholtz coils are also used in scientific apparatus to cancel external magnetic fields, such as the Earth's magnetic field. Abstract: The paper describes the simulating Helmholtz coils and improved Helmholtz coils in COMSOL. DESCRIPTION: This animation shows the magnetic field of a Helmholtz coil when the current in the top and bottom coils flows in opposite directions (ie. Induced current R ωL Coil, no plate σ-steel-plate 2d-simulations: 3d-simulations: Figure 10. Using Infinite Elements to Terminate Domains for 3D Coil Models. ) flux density spatial distribution coming from a generic multilayer coil (air core). 9) of our coil selection and pricing software is now available. It is very user friendly and a link would be e-mailed to you for download. Element size is set to normal. I'm trying to create a basic model of a homogenized multi-turn in COMSOL using the Magnetic Fields interface. The COMSOL Sales and Support teams are available for answering any. Comsol Time Dependent Solver Tutorial. The fields from the two point in opposite directions, creating a net field that is zero at the center of the coils. Electromagnetically induced acoustic noise (and vibration), electromagnetically excited acoustic noise, or coil whine is audible sound directly produced by materials vibrating under the excitation of electromagnetic forces. my AC input coil voltage is. A homogeneous magnetic field can be found through quadrature excitation, in combination with the appropriate number of lumped elements. For the Input sub-node, an interior boundary within the coil domains (normal to the direction of current flow) was selected. Table 1 shows the COMSOL impedance of the coil with the collar. Firstly, like all air core coils, it is free from 'iron losses' and the non-linearity mentioned above. In this presentation, we gathered the most popular eddy current benchmarks problems and solved them with the COMSOL Multiphysics® software. The objective of minimizing the total dissipated coil power is implemented. Dear colleagues, I need to modeling Ac coil to inducting a AC magnetic field for my project. This feature is not available right now. The simulation was completed using 3D-RF-Module, Electromagnetic-Waves, Frequency-Domain-interference of COMSOL Multiphysics®. COMSOL, the multiphysics modeling, simulation, and application design and deployment software company, announced the latest version of its COMSOL Multiphysics software. 132 2 nd International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology Development of an electrode/electrolyte interface model based on pseudo-distributed elements combining COMSOL, MATLAB and HSPICE Matteo Scaramuzza a,* , Alberto Ferrario b , Elisabetta Pasqualotto a , Alessandro De Toni a a. Keywords: Comsol, toroidal coil, inductance, toroidal helix, symmetry. To compute the velocity field in the model, I have coupled the two models using multiphysics option. I am trying to follow the Helmholtz Coil example in the model library for a rectangular coil form. Hector Zeffiro Duration: 10. In this paper COMSOL Multiphysics solves the magnetic fields surrounding the coil that is placed in electrical circuit and calculates the inductance of this coil. With a view to determine magnetic field topology, a computational domain was created which is a model of a saddle-shaped coil. 66e-3 ohms. Comsol Coil Simulation. Modeling Coils in the AC/DC Module. In part 1 of this 5-part video series, you will get a step-by-step demonstration of how to model a single-turn coil to solve for the magnetic vector potential. Click on “COMSOL Access” present at the bottom of the page. Design geometryCoil 2. The voltage adjustment 6 COMSOL NEWS 2016 CUSTOM APPLICATIONS | POWER TECHNOLOGY. Eddy current losses in toroid, strike ring, and soil 4. And if you're not familiar with the notation 1. z is the separation between coils (a) Dz Dr t f,2 t w,2 t f,1 t w,1 r int,2 r ext,2 r int,1 r ext,1 (b) Fig. Thermal runaway and excitation tests of the prototype made of the same coil were performed [4,5]. CS magnet system mainly consists of 8 Nb 3 Sn coils compressed with 8 sets of preload structure. 1 Figure 11. neuvoo™ 【 5 Comsol Job Opportunities in Switzerland 】 We’ll help you find Switzerland’s best Comsol jobs and we include related job information like salaries & taxes. There are two kinds of residual stresses which are main concerns. Electric Currents in Layered Shells. Procedia Chemistry 6 ( 2012 ) 69 – 78 1876-6196 2012 Elsevier B. Abstract—This work presents the analysis of a wireless power transfer system consisting of two coupled coils and ferrite slabs acting as flux con- centrators. COMSOL webinar - modeling coils and electric devices - Duration: 27:19. Dear colleagues, I need to modeling Ac coil to inducting a AC magnetic field for my project. To compute the velocity field in the model, I have coupled the two models using multiphysics option. The following executable files are contained in COMSOL Multiphysics 5. Several different approaches to optimizing a ten-turn axisymmetric coil are presented. This integral can be evaluated via the Integration Component Coupling, defined over the inside coil boundaries. For users of the AC/DC Module, COMSOL Multiphysics ® version 5. This material is accessed from the Comsol material database. The BL(x) plot is very close to the measured Klippel response and reveals that the voice coil is slightly off-center. If you need them for test and personal use, please contact us for them: [email protected] This tutorial example shows how to use the Electric Currents in Shells interface together with Magnetic Field interface to compute the resistance and inductance of a planar PCB coil in the stationary regime. Part 4 of this 5-part series continues the step-by-step demonstration of coil modeling in the COMSOL ® software by showing how to add multiple turns to the primary and secondary coils in the electrical circuit model. ch United Kingdom COMSOL Ltd. Short tutorial on how to draw a coil in Comsol 4. Coil Selection Software Our coil selection software calculates performance on existing coils as well as makes selections on the most efficient coils for the job. The coil geometry is created in MATLAB and then imported into COMSOL. March 3, 2016. Get inspired by the COMSOL Blog today. The coils on the coil gun have to be wired based on the schematic shown above. The cylinder is given an outer layer, forming the coil domains. where P o is the initial total power dissipated in all coils and P_{coil}^k is the power dissipated in the k th coil. Experiences from modeling very thin structures in COMSOL Multiphysics Bergen COMSOL User Group Workshop April 10th 2013. 36kA/m that corresponds to your estimate, COMSOL is normally not calculating wrong (at least not my 4. of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectrometer Andriy Samila* Abstract—A topology of high-frequency field intensity in the work area of a saddle-shaped coil for a nuclear qaudrupole resonance spectrometer was studied. Inductance and Magnetic Energy 11. Enter the coil length (distance from first to last winding - see diagram). CS magnet system mainly consists of 8 Nb 3 Sn coils compressed with 8 sets of preload structure. Element size is set to normal. Secondly, single layer coils have the additional advantage of low self-capacitance and thus high self-resonant frequency. Thus, our model reduces to a quarter-circle domain with five independent coils that are modeled using the Coil Domain feature. The model uses a homogenization technique to calculate the current distribution inside the superconducting layers of a HTS stack where each tape carries the same net current as it would be the case in a coil. audioXpress January 2020 is now available in print and download! To start 2020 in the best possible way, this edition includes a Market Update about Speakers and Transducers, followed by a report of the COMSOL Boston Conference where the latest Multiphysics 5. Why Simulate? • Understanding - Enable intuition for further innovation • Testing of new ideas. The sphere encapsulates the coil, and is given an outer layer to form the infinite element domains. COMSOL Multiphysics designed to assist you to solve and model low-frequency electromagnetics. High temperature lead bering soft solder. When designing Helmholtz coils, a question naturally arises: How uniform is the magnetic field and over what distance? To answer this, we can turn to the COMSOL Multiphysics® software. Its COMSOL Multiphysics product is an integrated software environment for creating physics-based models and simulation applications. \൜爀屲A lot can be considered and achieved before proceeding to the expensive stage of building prototypes or deploying. Hello ! I am using Comsol Multiphysics in order to simulate the eddy currents in a damaged/cracked steel circular rod, with a helix coil surrounded it and thus creating the alternativ magnetic field. The geometry of a Helmholtz coil is comprised of two identical circular coils that are spaced one radius apart. secondary coil axes C2 capacitor used for resonance F I coil current A J conduction current A σ conductivity S·m −1 Ec conservative electric field component V m −1 Ak correction factor k coupling coefficient A cross-sectional area m2,, r z ϕ cylindrical coordinate system coordinates d distance between coil centres m D electric. I specified a current excitation of 1[A]. The sphere encapsulates the coil, and is given an outer layer to form the infinite element domains. Entrusted by advisor to design and direct new projects with single-coil microelectromagnetic traps: conducted COMSOL simulations on magnetic fields produced and determined insulation thickness. Work through the modeling steps and use of the COMSOL software for modeling electromagnetic coils with the AC/DC Module. The COMSOL discussion forum covers a wide variety of simulation topics. Analyzing the Magnetic Field of a Helmholtz Coil. To compute the velocity field in the model, I have coupled the two models using multiphysics option. The cylinder is given an outer layer, forming the coil domains. In the Comsol software, i used 2D "magnetic field physics" (mf) and "multi-turn Coil". Hector Zeffiro Duration: 10. Single turn coils produce AC and transient magnetic fields in pulsed magnetic technologies for which magneto-harmonic and transient magnetic analysis can be primarily performed. For users of the AC/DC Module, COMSOL Multiphysics ® version 5. 4 mm diameter NbTi 54/40 strand with copper to non-copper ratio of ~1. At left, temperature distribution from simulation of a furnace with water-cooled induction coils. Geometry: The model geometry consists of a cylinder and a sphere. The simulation technique is described. Santosh has 5 jobs listed on their profile. This allows for a quasi-static approach that speeds up the model, but it disallows the Coil Geometry Analysis to use its own equation form. In the extreme case of a permanent magnet the permeability within it will be negative. Email me about your needs. We used COMSOL Multiphysics for the electromagnetic simulation (see Figure 2) of different options such as a ground plate partnered with a coil on the underside of the car and a mounting on the wall partnered with a coil placed behind the num- ber plate. coil resistance, caused by the plate Figure 6. The coil geometry is created in MATLAB and then imported into COMSOL. HELMHOLTZ COIL Simulation of a parallel pair of identical circular. Arrows and colors – Single turn coil excitation. Part 4 of this 5-part series continues the step-by-step demonstration of coil modeling in the COMSOL ® software by showing how to add multiple turns to the primary and secondary coils in the electrical circuit model. Geometry: The model geometry consists of a cylinder and a sphere. Use cases include resistive and capacitive devices, inductors and coils, as well as motors and magnets. The coils were subsequently made and tested as a successfully because of this work, fulfilling the technical requirements. I have a resistive coil from a MEMS. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. With the RF Module, you can optimize designs by investigating effects such as electromagnetic wave propagation, microwave heating, and RF heating — ensuring that you create the best products possible and get ahead of others in your field. The cylinder is given an outer layer, forming the coil domains. Element size is set to normal. 4 offers ready-to-use parts for coils and magnetic cores; electric currents and Joule heating in thin, layered structures; and force computations for nonlinear materials using virtual work. Thermal runaway and excitation tests of the prototype made of the same coil were performed [4,5]. When designing Helmholtz coils, a question naturally arises: How uniform is the magnetic field and over what distance? To answer this, we can turn to the COMSOL Multiphysics® software. The sphere encapsulates the coil, and is given an outer layer to form the infinite element domains. In Section V, the model will be experimentally validated by characterizing a prototype. Comsol Tutorial Heat conduction in a simple heat sink (aluminium) cooling a high voltage copper cable. 39,893 views. Hi I am trying to model a 3D shell and tube heat exchanger where heat is transferring through the tube wall. Coil resistance Figure 9. Free webinar on June 25, 2014. Planar PCB Coil Application ID: 59301 This tutorial example shows how to use the Electric Currents in Shells interface together with Magnetic Field interface to compute the resistance and inductance of a planar PCB coil in the stationary regime. And if you're not familiar with the notation 1. I have done the geometry of the screen and tried to draw a ring shaped coil, but I cannot manage to set the current through the coil. The remaining domains are defined as Air (built-in). Improved Helmholtz coils allows to create a magnetic field with inhomogeneity is not more than 1 % at a distance of half the radius of the geometric center of the coils system. Dielectric losses, coil form and conductor insulation 3. Ohmic or copper losses 2. Why Simulate? • Understanding - Enable intuition for further innovation • Testing of new ideas. × Warning Your internet explorer is in compatibility mode and may not be displaying the website correctly. Hello ! I am using Comsol Multiphysics in order to simulate the eddy currents in a damaged/cracked steel circular rod, with a helix coil surrounded it and thus creating the alternativ magnetic field. COMSOL webinar - modeling coils and electric devices - Duration: 27:19. We suggest studying one single turn coil example made of a conducting massive coil, an optional conducting field shaper and an internal conducting tube supposed to be. The new COMSOL Multiphysics 5. The implementation of this problem uses the same Global Control Variables feature as before. - Numerical coils need to have a constant cross section along the winding path (the corners in the rectangular shape of your coil violate that) - An automatic current calculation subnode with insulation and input definition is needed. – Arbitrary shaped coils including toroid, helicoid, saddle. The simulation technique is described. Please try again later. Multilayer Air Coil. This project is blacklisted. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis tool ANSYS MAXWELL is employed to optimize the integrated coils, and detailed design procedures on improving system efficiency are also given in this paper. The sphere encapsulates the coil, and is given an outer layer to form the infinite element domains. The remaining domains are defined as Air (built-in). ru Tutorial Modeling, Simulation And Verification Of Contactless Power k= M p L 1L 2; (1) where L 1 is the self-inductance of the primary, L 2 is the self-inductance of the secondary, M is the mutual inductance. This material is accessed from the Comsol material database. the speed and displacement of the plate is calculated by Global Equation (ge). Induction Heating in Design. Chapter 6—Resistance of Coil 6–1 RESISTANCE OF COIL The resistance R TC in the RLC model is an effective or equivalent resistance which rep-resents all the losses in the Tesla coil. number of windings in the coil, I is the current though the coils, Rc is the radius of the coil. 1 ALTAIR_HYPERFORM_V5. Furthermore, COMSOL Multiphysics and its add-on modules have also been improved. Short tutorial on how to draw a coil in Comsol 4. Using COMSOL Compiler™, applications created with the Application Builder can be compiled and distributed as executable. COMSOL, COMSOL Multiphysics, Capture the Concept, COMSOL Desktop, COMSOL Server, LiveLink, and Simulation for Everyone through the windings of one coil creates a magnetic ˚ ux that induces current in an adjacent coil. Michael Morken. COMSOL®'s single and multi-turn domains are used to model an induction coil, and the simulations of induction heating are made at a range of frequencies from 50 Hz to 500 kHz. For the Input sub-node, an interior boundary within the coil domains (normal to the direction of current flow) was selected. really is a Comsol Multiphysics file, referenced with the option COMSOL:. Geometry: The model geometry consists of a cylinder and a sphere. It is very user friendly and a link would be e-mailed to you for download. Several different approaches to optimizing a ten-turn axisymmetric coil are presented. ESSENTIALS OF POSTPROCESSING AND VISUALIZATION IN COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 2 the current flows through both coils in the same direction. Combining this anisotropic effect with a temperature-dependent resistivity makes this a complex multiphysics problem. It consists of two electromagnets on the same axis. Additional Files Included In addition to the information of the voice coil design considerations included on the page this file should be found should be the COMSOL model for the voice coil, so it can be edited with. exe is the full command line if you want to remove COMSOL Multiphysics 5. Three finite element meshes were used in the study. You can understand. In the Comsol software, i used 2D "magnetic field physics" (mf) and "multi-turn Coil". COMSOL, COMSOL Multiphysics, Capture the Concept, COMSOL Desktop, COMSOL Server, LiveLink, and Simulation for Everyone through the windings of one coil creates a magnetic ˚ ux that induces current in an adjacent coil. Due to the voltage difference, a current will flow through the wire. Furthermore, COMSOL Multiphysics and its add-on modules have also been improved. This winding results in a uniform magnetic field between the coils with the primary component parallel to the axes of the two coils. The simulation technique is described. This depends on the design of the probe. This chapter introduces you to the capabilities of the module including an. z is the separation between coils (a) Dz Dr t f,2 t w,2 t f,1 t w,1 r int,2 r ext,2 r int,1 r ext,1 (b) Fig. The major problem is the complexity of the geometry under comsol. In this tutorial, we will solve one physical problem using a numerical toolbox called COMSOL Multiphysics (FEMLAB). Dielectric losses, coil form and conductor insulation 3. COMSOL webinar - modeling non-linear structural materials - Duration: 22:30. I tried to use a coil to model lenz law but the geometry was to complicated and it never managed to get a solution. En el siguiente Tutorial se mostrar la forma mas sencilla de simular una Bobina (Electroiman) en Comsol Multiphysics 4. The simulation figure-8 coil is modeled in COMSOL, and the magnetic field of it is simulated in COMSOL with finite element method. See how researchers in your industry are currently using numerical modeling to optimize designs, streamline processes, and improve products by browsing the technical papers and presentations below. The area includes part of the coil, as shown in the diagram above. Where: L is the inductance in Henries, V L is the voltage across the coil and di/dt is the rate of change of current in Amperes per second, A/s. The combination of COMSOL. Single layer Planar spiral coil inductor calculator : The first approximation is based on a modification of an expression developed by Wheeler; the second is derived from electromagnetic principles by approximating the sides of the spirals as current-sheets; and the third is a monomial expression derived from fitting to a large database of inductors (and the exact inductance values). To compute the velocity field in the model, I have coupled the two models using multiphysics option. really is a Comsol Multiphysics file, referenced with the option COMSOL:. density (B-field). Additional Files Included In addition to the information of the voice coil design considerations included on the page this file should be found should be the COMSOL model for the voice coil, so it can be edited with. Get an introduction to modeling electromagnetic coils using COMSOL Multiphysics ® and the add-on AC/DC Module. Element size is set to normal. COMSOL, the multiphysics modeling, simulation, and application design and deployment software company, announced the latest version of its COMSOL Multiphysics software. Materials: The coil domains are defined as Copper (AC/DC). I'm a student, new to Comsol, and I'm trying to simulate a copper coil with a current of 100A, at 50Hz, and an Iron/Aluminum screen to see how it shields the electromagnetic field. For the workpiece a bolt M12x60 mm made of carbon steel was chosen. Keywords: Comsol, toroidal coil, inductance, toroidal helix, symmetry. but parameters of ignition system such as spark plug and coil. The following executable files are contained in COMSOL Multiphysics 5. Providing a homogeneous field distribution within a birdcage coil is a key factor for improving the quality of the scanned data. Removal of azo and diazo dye content from textile industry wastewaters is crucial due to their environmental impact. 00 ©2015 IEEE. representative, go to other COMSOL websites, request information and pricing, submit technical support queries, subscribe to the monthly eNews email newsletter, and much more. Major News in COMSOL Multiphysics ® Version 5. 3D Magnetic Fields section of the AC/DC module is considered for geometry (Figure 1). number of windings in the coil, I is the current though the coils, Rc is the radius of the coil. Planar PCB Coil. 2 2D geometry TABLE I PARAMETER OF SIMULATION Symbol Quantity Value I Current 2000 [A] f Frequency 5 [kHz] t Times 1000 [s]. It’s quick and easy to apply online for any of the 5 featured Comsol jobs. A Helmholtz coil is a parallel pair of identical circular coils spaced one radius apart and wound so that the current flows through both coils in the same direction. com/shared/images/logos/comsol_logo. This depends on the design of the probe. The sphere encapsulates the coil, and is given an outer layer to form the infinite element domains. Program highlights still include keynote talks, presentations, and panel discussions featuring speakers across all fields of engineering, apart from the traditional news announcements. The functions of the preload structure are to apply an enough axial compression to the CS coils and to have a mechanical rigidity against the repulsive force between 8 Nb 3 Sn. In this work, the 3-dimensional magnetic field distribution of this hybrid coil is simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics. To compute the velocity field in the model, I have coupled the two models using multiphysics option. The invention relates to a structure of magnetic circuit to be used in inductors. 4 COMSOL Multiphysics ® version 5. You can find a detailed description of these models in the blog post "3 Ways to Optimize the Current in Electromagnetic Coils". Materials: The coil domains are defined as Copper (AC/DC). In there I can select the edge to set the direction of the rotation of the current. Free and paid events offering a variety of learning opportunities. Browse the threads and share your ideas with the COMSOL community. QuickField is very powerful tool for electromagnetic coil simulation. The COMSOL discussion forum covers a wide variety of simulation topics. Hi mate, i’m a tesla coil lover like you and i think i can contribute for your beautyful coil. Improved Helmholtz coils allows to create a magnetic field with inhomogeneity is not more than 1 % at a distance of half the radius of the geometric center of the coils system. These models showcase shape and parameter optimization for magnetic field modeling. Experiences from modeling very thin structures in COMSOL Multiphysics Bergen COMSOL User Group Workshop April 10th 2013. The update includes enhanced features to aid customers selecting replacement HVAC coils. The fields from the two point in opposite directions, creating a net field that is zero at the center of the coils. 38,281 views. In the Comsol software, i used 2D "magnetic field physics" (mf) and "multi-turn Coil". In this tutorial, we will solve one physical problem using a numerical toolbox called COMSOL Multiphysics (FEMLAB). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems generate a magnetic flux density (B-field) to create images. Coil geometry The coil is wound using 0. The following executable files are contained in COMSOL Multiphysics 5. Results: Tests verified that the system generated a target peak AMF amplitude along the coil axis of ∼35 kA/m (peak) at a frequency of 150 ± 10 kHz while maintaining field uniformity to >90% of. CS magnet system mainly consists of 8 Nb 3 Sn coils compressed with 8 sets of preload structure. The 3D image was imported in COMSOL and the permeability obtained by simulating stokes flow through the pore space was 8. I'm new to Comsol and i'm trying to create a multi-turn coil with a metal rode inside it, for induction heating process. COMSOL Multiphysics version 5. structural mechanics, thermodynamics, acoustics). This chapter introduces you to the capabilities of the module including an. 1 to utilize the latest technology in simulations today. A schematic of the computational model. Geometry: The model geometry consists of a cylinder and a sphere. Chapter 3 presents the modeling of a project conceptual inductor model in COMSOL. A coil is placed in the air gap that winds perpendicular to the magnetic flux lines and is mechanically connected to the membrane of the speaker. number of windings in the coil, I is the current though the coils, Rc is the radius of the coil. The new COMSOL Multiphysics 5. Ohmic or copper losses 2. If you go to the Magnetic Fields interface's settings window and find that the equation form is set to "Stationary", switch it to "Study controlled" (the default). COMSOL Conduction heat transfer EXAMPLE 3-8 Heat Loss through an Insulated Steam Pipe -. These coils are mostly used above about 3 Mhz. Removal of azo and diazo dye content from textile industry wastewaters is crucial due to their environmental impact. The field plot from COMSOL model of the coil antenna with the collar and the housing is shown in Figure 6. remove material history/set element's strain to zero. Get an introduction to modeling electromagnetic coils using COMSOL Multiphysics ® and the add-on AC/DC Module. The remaining domains are defined as Air (built-in). Special Events. 2018 02:58 GMT−7 Electromagnetic Heating, AC/DC & Electromagnetics Version 5. HELMHOLTZ COIL Simulation of a parallel pair of identical circular. This winding results in a uniform magnetic field between the coils with the primary component parallel to the axes of the two coils. So, induction heating takes place without physical contact between the workpiece and induction coil. Element size is set to normal. The cylinder is given an outer layer, forming the coil domains. The highest field of CS coil is 17. A homogeneous magnetic field can be found through quadrature excitation, in combination with the appropriate number of lumped elements. https://www. ’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. A Helmholtz coil is a device for producing a region of nearly uniform magnetic field, named after the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz. Linear DC Motors, Voice Coil Motors (VCM) or Voice Coil Actuators (VCA) are the simplest type of electric motors. The new COMSOL Multiphysics 5. Santosh has 5 jobs listed on their profile. Note! This is a reduced version of the presentation without figures for the coil case. Get an introduction to modeling electromagnetic coils using COMSOL Multiphysics ® and the add-on AC/DC Module. In this blog post, we will introduce the different boundary conditions that you can use and how to choose between them. 2-D homogeneous model to estimate AC losses in coated conductor stacks and coils (shared by V. Organizations around the world trust ANSYS to deliver the best value for their engineering simulation software investment. | 20,402 followers on LinkedIn | Understand, predict, and optimize physics-based designs and processes with the COMSOL Multiphysics® software. A comprehensive study on the influence of the turn-to-turn misalignment factor on the local electromagnetic properties of individual turns, is presented by considering six different coil arrangements and ten amplitudes for the applied alternating transport current, Ia, together with an experimentally determined function for the magneto-angular. Electromagnetics: How to Make a Powerful DYI Coil Gun. Masson Advanced Magnet Lab [email protected] Major News in COMSOL Multiphysics ® Version 5. coil resistance, caused by the plate Figure 6. For the Input sub-node, an interior boundary within the coil domains (normal to the direction of current flow) was selected. The calculations which performed for three: 8, 16 and 32 toroidal coils, indicates that increasing the number of toroidal coils lead to. Note that not all materials can be heated by induction, only those with high electrical conductivity (such as copper, gold, and aluminum, to name a few). offering fine quality inductor coil at Affordable Price. A harmonic current is applied to the EMAT coil and the latter produces a magnetic field, also alternating, which induces eddy currents in the metallic rod. How to Set Up and Run a Simulation with COMSOL Multiphysics. The highest field of CS coil is 17. Comsol Coil Simulation. ESSENTIALS OF POSTPROCESSING AND VISUALIZATION IN COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 2 CUT POINTS AND EVALUATIONS. Thickness reduction arising due to corrosion or in any other ways can cause severe damages to structures. In this paper, we have reviewed the ITER magnetic coils materials, and also we have estimated the amplitude of TF ripples and its dependence to numbers of coils using the "Comsol Multiphysics" software. I'm new to Comsol and i'm trying to create a multi-turn coil with a metal rode inside it, for induction heating process. We further want to constrain the fields at M number of points on the centerline to be above a value of B 0. Thermal runaway and excitation tests of the prototype made of the same coil were performed [4,5]. Mesh: The default physics-controlled mesh is used. Its COMSOL Multiphysics product is an integrated software environment for creating physics-based models and simulation applications. Best regards, SB. These variables must be defined in the model in a certain way. Materials: The coil domains are defined as Copper (AC/DC). COMSOL, Inc. In the extreme case of a permanent magnet the permeability within it will be negative. 2's main executable file and it takes close to 123. The coil heat exchanger we’ll consider is shown in the figure below. The COMSOL discussion forum covers a wide variety of simulation topics. This tool is designed to calculate the inductance of a coil of wire given the number of turns, the loop diameter, wire diameter, and the permeability of the medium. I am wondering how COMSOL calculates the cross section area of coil geometries. density (B-field). This winding results in a uniform magnetic field between the coils with the primary component parallel to the axes of the two coils. The cylinder is given an outer layer, forming the coil domains. As discussed in the previous pages, probes can contain one or more coils, a core and shielding. COMSOL webinar - modeling coils and electric devices - Duration: 27:19. 6 COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS SEPTEMBER 2016 Figure 7. --- Collaborated with other engineers to design oscillator circuit for driving coils into resonance for maximal coupling and successfully increased battery life on the device. COMSOL AB Tegnérgatan 23 SE-111 40 Stockholm Phone: +46 8 412 95 00 Fax: +46 8 412 95 10 [email protected] Three-dimensional finite-element analysis tool ANSYS MAXWELL is employed to optimize the integrated coils, and detailed design procedures on improving system efficiency are also given in this paper. All to simulate the electromagnetic force kicks off the plate ( mf ). Dear colleagues, I need to modeling Ac coil to inducting a AC magnetic field for my project. Geometry: The model geometry consists of a cylinder and a sphere. Electromagnetic coils simulations with QuickField. I was able to dig out the code and here it is for those who might still be interested. HELMHOLTZ COIL Simulation of a parallel pair of identical circular. A closed coil is shown with a small region representing the source that feeds the coil. coil part of the bore is smaller in diameter than the outer part, the diameters being 12cm and 26 cm, respectively. The sphere encapsulates the coil, and is given an outer layer to form the infinite element domains. | 20,402 followers on LinkedIn | Understand, predict, and optimize physics-based designs and processes with the COMSOL Multiphysics® software. In session 4 of this continuing lecture series, we will work through the modeling steps and use of the COMSOL® software for modeling electromagnetic coils with the AC/DC Module. 4 mm diameter NbTi 54/40 strand with copper to non-copper ratio of ~1. Thorsten Liebig 1, Andreas Rennings 1, Sebastian Held 1, Daniel Erni 1. The coil is charged by an electric circuit (cir). The voltage adjustment 6 COMSOL NEWS 2016 CUSTOM APPLICATIONS | POWER TECHNOLOGY. Removal of azo and diazo dye content from textile industry wastewaters is crucial due to their environmental impact. MRI Birdcage Coil. – Arbitrary shaped coils including toroid, helicoid, saddle. The sphere encapsulates the coil, and is given an outer layer to form the infinite element domains. Multilayer Air Coil. gif https://www. Expected increase of coil resistance Measurement and Comparison: Excerpt from the proceedings of the 2015 COMSOL Conference in Grenoble. Ole Wolff have been using COMSOL since 2016 and are now using it to simulate both mechanical, electrical and acoustical parameters of loudspeakers and enclosures. Inductive heating of the plasma caused a large enhancement of the overall visible light emission and the appearance of Cu II line emission. • Install 2 temperature sensor in the coil • Run the coil in vacuum for about 3 hours. Multilayer Air Coil. Eddy current losses in toroid, strike ring, and soil 4. When I compute the magnetic field around the coil, some line go trough the coil itself. Electromagnetic coils are used in many applications where the electromagnetic field needs to be generated or sensed. This allows for a quasi-static approach that speeds up the model, but it disallows the Coil Geometry Analysis to use its own equation form. For the workpiece a bolt M12x60 mm made of carbon steel was chosen. Coil (Probe) Design. To compute the velocity field in the model, I have coupled the two models using multiphysics option. Prathamesh has 4 jobs listed on their profile. 66e-3 ohms. can’t download any COMSOL file (. Comsol Coil Simulation. In part a) of the. Insulation Thickness, m 2500 2700 2900 4100 3900 3700. COMSOL Multiphysics designed to assist you to solve and model low-frequency electromagnetics. I tried to use a coil to model lenz law but the geometry was to complicated and it never managed to get a solution. At left, temperature distribution from simulation of a furnace with water-cooled induction coils. These coils are mostly used above about 3 Mhz. Another example is the thermal analysis of a coil. This feature is not available right now. where P o is the initial total power dissipated in all coils and P_{coil}^k is the power dissipated in the k th coil. Using Infinite Elements to Terminate Domains for 3D Coil Models. The Helmholtz coils simulating and improved in COMSOL Abstract: The paper describes the simulating Helmholtz coils and improved Helmholtz coils in COMSOL. Hello, I want to simulate a coil of a transformer in Maxwell (3D), but my problem is: the coil design is not a closed path. 1 Dual-Motor Model 3 Production Imminent As Tesla Registers First VINs 2 Satin Black Tesla Model 3 Looks like It Could Suck in the Entire Universe 3 Tesla Model 3 0-60 MPH and 1/4 Mile Real World. ) flux density spatial distribution coming from a generic multilayer coil (air core). docx), PDF File (. Coil Selection Software Our coil selection software calculates performance on existing coils as well as makes selections on the most efficient coils for the job. Comsol Multiphysics' AC/DC module solves Maxwell's equations in the quasi-static approximation and in this contribution, we will show examples of its use in modeling magnetometric resistivity (MMR), very low frequency (VLF) techniques, as well as frequency and time-domain induction-based electromagnetic techniques. It is also important to know the complete resonance frequency spectrum (or resonant modes) of the birdcage coil that helps the coil designers to be sure that working mode is far away from the other modes so that tuning and matching. Electromagnetic coils are used in many applications where the electromagnetic field needs to be generated or sensed. 1 to utilize the latest technology in simulations today. I created the coil in MATLAB and then imported it as an object in FEMLAB. Hence regular inspection of structures is vi…. Geometry: The model geometry consists of a cylinder and a sphere. Finally, experimental results are presented for a number of projectiles and the results are analyzed. for applications including resistors, capacitors, inductors and coils, motors, magnets, and electromagnetic heating. With COMSOL, it is also possible to observe the effects of temperature on the capacitance value. Abstract—This work presents the analysis of a wireless power transfer system consisting of two coupled coils and ferrite slabs acting as flux con- centrators. The combination of COMSOL. The geometry of a Helmholtz coil is comprised of two identical circular coils that are spaced one radius apart. It consists of two electromagnets on the same axis. ’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. I created the coil in MATLAB and then imported it as an object in FEMLAB. COMSOL, COMSOL Multiphysics, Capture the Concept, COMSOL Desktop, COMSOL Server, LiveLink, and Simulation for Everyone through the windings of one coil creates a magnetic ˚ ux that induces current in an adjacent coil. C:\Program Files\COMSOL\COMSOL52\Multiphysics\bin\win64\setup. Procedia Chemistry 6 ( 2012 ) 69 – 78 1876-6196 2012 Elsevier B. Christopher Crawford COMSOL Conference, Boston 2011-10-14 Presented at the 2011 COMSOL Conference. The cylinder is given an outer layer, forming the coil domains. CS magnet system mainly consists of 8 Nb 3 Sn coils compressed with 8 sets of preload structure. coil part of the bore is smaller in diameter than the outer part, the diameters being 12cm and 26 cm, respectively. Thermal runaway and excitation tests of the prototype made of the same coil were performed [4,5]. A third book, the AC/DC Module Reference Guide, contains. Besides creating magnetic fields, Helmholtz coils are also used in scientific apparatus to cancel external magnetic fields, such as the Earth's magnetic. COMSOL Releases Multiphysics 5. The simulation technique is described. COMSOL Conduction heat transfer EXAMPLE 3-8 Heat Loss through an Insulated Steam Pipe -. 2 2D geometry TABLE I PARAMETER OF SIMULATION Symbol Quantity Value I Current 2000 [A] f Frequency 5 [kHz] t Times 1000 [s] d Diameter coil 10 [mm] 10 Turn coil The predefined transient analysis, induction heating, electromagnetic interaction. AC/DC Module Updates. To compute the velocity field in the model, I have coupled the two models using multiphysics option. Vehicle: 2013 Ford® Fusion. You can understand. Hence regular inspection of structures is vi…. locus Figure 8. The remaining domains are defined as Air (built-in). The fact that the emf always opposes the change in current is an example of Lenz's law. coil resistance, caused by the plate Figure 6. Firstly, like all air core coils, it is free from 'iron losses' and the non-linearity mentioned above. For users of the AC/DC Module, COMSOL Multiphysics ® version 5. Impedance design test and professional PCB stackup documentation tools for PCB fabrication, design and pre layout platform design. Comsol Coil Simulation. The Helmholtz coils simulating and improved in COMSOL Abstract: The paper describes the simulating Helmholtz coils and improved Helmholtz coils in COMSOL. coil part of the bore is smaller in diameter than the outer part, the diameters being 12cm and 26 cm, respectively. Get an introduction to modeling electromagnetic coils using COMSOL Multiphysics ® and the add-on AC/DC Module. The major problem is the complexity of the geometry under comsol. If you go to the Magnetic Fields interface's settings window and find that the equation form is set to "Stationary", switch it to "Study controlled" (the default). Induction Heating in Design. A coil is modeled in the ANSYS MAXWELL and simulated coil is produced to compare the all. Predict Change in Coil Inductance due to Steel-Belted Tires Without Steel Tire Belts: With Steel Tire Belts: 21 3D Liquid Metal Printing COMSOL AC/DC, CFD, Heat Transfer and COMSOL Server Vader Systems' Innovative MagnetoJet 3D Metal Printer Predict Droplet Generation. ru Tutorial Modeling, Simulation And Verification Of Contactless Power k= M p L 1L 2; (1) where L 1 is the self-inductance of the primary, L 2 is the self-inductance of the secondary, M is the mutual inductance. COMSOL Multiphysics designed to assist you to solve and model low-frequency electromagnetics. really is a Comsol Multiphysics file, referenced with the option COMSOL:. In part 1 of this 5-part video series, you will get a step-by-step demonstration of how to model a single-turn coil to solve for the magnetic vector potential. To compute the velocity field in the model, I have coupled the two models using multiphysics option. The work aims to optimise the geometry of the inductor of a reactive-ion etching reactor using the COMSOL Multiphysics package, including the calculation of the electron temperature, density, and electric potential of a plasma. The remaining domains are defined as Air (built-in). This source (shown in green in the image below) is entirely within the modeling domain and closes the current path. The field plot from COMSOL model of the coil antenna with the collar and the housing is shown in Figure 6. There are two kinds of residual stresses which are main concerns. Linear DC Motors, Voice Coil Motors (VCM) or Voice Coil Actuators (VCA) are the simplest type of electric motors. In this work, the 3-dimensional magnetic field distribution of this hybrid coil is simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics. Hello, I want to simulate a coil of a transformer in Maxwell (3D), but my problem is: the coil design is not a closed path. However, it doesn't propagate it to the next Step2, where the magnetic field should be calculated. Work through the modeling steps and use of the COMSOL software for modeling electromagnetic coils with the AC/DC Module. For the Input sub-node, an interior boundary within the coil domains (normal to the direction of current flow) was selected. 01406m^2 for 38*260=9880A hence your 702. Download Comsol Coil Power Mp3 Sound. The geometry of a Helmholtz coil is comprised of two identical circular coils that are spaced one radius apart. Hence regular inspection of structures is vi…. With COMSOL, it is also possible to observe the effects of temperature on the capacitance value. kamyar K 31,102 views. This winding results in a uniform magnetic field between the coils with the primary component parallel to the axes of the two coils. 26x10-6, it's just another way of writing 0. This workflow is reflected throughout the software's user interface and is organized into the following tasks: -Set up the model -Create the geometry -Specify material properties -Define the physics -Create the mesh -Run the simulation -Postprocess the. COMSOL webinar - modeling coils and electric devices - Duration: 27:19. I am trying to follow the Helmholtz Coil example in the model library for a rectangular coil form. View Prathamesh Bilgunde, PhD'S profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. z is the separation between coils (a) Dz Dr t f,2 t w,2 t f,1 t w,1 r int,2 r ext,2 r int,1 r ext,1 (b) Fig. COMSOL Releases Multiphysics 5. It includes 1. A Rogowski coil consists of a uniformly wound coil with a nonmagnetic core, and the output voltage is proportional to the derivative of the primary current. Browse through the release highlights to find out what is new or download COMSOL version 5. The coil heat exchanger we’ll consider is shown in the figure below. The larger cylindrical portion to the left where the probe is placed is 100cm long, and a similar 138-cm long portion is to the right 978-1-4799-8275-2/15/$31. Due to the voltage difference, a current will flow through the wire. Coil (Probe) Design. This feature is not available right now. In a coil, the many windings conduct heat very efficiently in one direction. There are two kinds of residual stresses which are main concerns. Please try again later. If you go to the Magnetic Fields interface's settings window and find that the equation form is set to "Stationary", switch it to "Study controlled" (the default). 2 T when the running current is 60 kA. The paper describes the simulating Helmholtz coils and improved Helmholtz coils in COMSOL. A Helmholtz coil is a device for producing a region of nearly uniform magnetic field, named after the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz. A coil feature was added and specified as a homogenized multi turn coil with 100 turns. Vehicle: 2013 Ford® Fusion. secondary coil axes C2 capacitor used for resonance F I coil current A J conduction current A σ conductivity S·m −1 Ec conservative electric field component V m −1 Ak correction factor k coupling coefficient A cross-sectional area m2,, r z ϕ cylindrical coordinate system coordinates d distance between coil centres m D electric. About COMSOL. Please login with a confirmed email address before reporting spam.
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